An E-bike controller is among the most crucial functions of Electric bikes. It works as the brain of the E-bike and handles every aspect of the bike. To operate the E-bike, we need to link all electrical components like battery, motor, throttle, brake, sensor to the controller. With the assistance of a controller, you can control the power from the motor, speed of the bike, velocity of the bike, etc
. This post represents the guide on E-bike Controller. Likewise, here we will talk about the parameters that need to be thought about while picking the controller.
What is an E-bike Controller?
An E-bike controller is a component that connects all electrical parts on the bike together. It connects the things like the battery, motor, throttle, screen, pedal-assist, and numerous sensors.
Normally, E-bike controllers can be found in a sealed protective box. The controllers can be placed open on a bike; however, some styles are installed inside of the frame and hidden away.
As a rule, controllers can be found in a sealed protective box because they are exposed to the aspects. However, some designs can be installed inside the bikes frame and hidden away from sight.
The function of the E-Bike Controller?
The controllers main function is to take inputs from all the E-bike parts like throttle, battery, speed sensor, screen, motor, and so on, and determine what to be returned signal. The various controller design has numerous securities that are,
Over-voltage Protection- The controller also keeps track of the charge level of the battery voltage. It will immediately shut down when the battery voltage reaches its complete charge.
Over-current Protection- If the motor takes more current, the controller lowers the existing flow to the motor. It protects the motor windings in addition to the FET power transistors.
Low-voltage Protection- The controller keeps an eye on the battery voltage continually, and it closes down the motor whenever the voltage reaches its cut-off level. It will safeguard the battery versus over-discharge.
Brake Protection- The controller supplies more top priority to the braking signal as compared to others. For instance, if you use the brakes and throttle at the same time, it will carry out the brake function.
Over-temperature Protection- The controller keeps track of the temperature of the FET (Field-effective Transistors). It will shut down the motor whenever they end up being too hot.
Kinds Of E-bike Controller
Three types of E-bike controllers are offered, and they are brushed DC motor controller, brushless DC motor controller, and BLDC motor controller with hall sensor. Let see these in information,
1. Brushed DC motor controllers
Brushed DC motors feature long-term magnets to choose an adapter. The design of these controllers is much simpler. It is simply a set of keys that can change the existing provided to the engine.
Brushed controllers are primarily utilized on small electric automobiles such as scooters, electric bicycles, pedelecs, e-bikes, and other light EVs.
These controllers are pretty easy to utilize and are mainly utilized by DIY hobbyists and enthusiasts. The above image shows the set of the brushed motors with controllers
2. Brushless DC motor controllers.
The above image shows a Brushless motor with a controller. In the type of structure, it looks like the brushed controllers.
An E-bike, Mostly BLDC motor, and BLDC controllers are utilized. These are the brushless motors with irreversible magnets. They are reliable and use greater effectiveness. The operation and service of these controllers are really simple. Normally, whatever on the brushless DC motor controllers is easy, including their operation and service.
3. BLDC controllers for motors with Hall Sensors
In brushed DC motors, the brushes get in touch with the commutator and switch the present for the movement of the rotor. There are no brushes in the BLDC motor. Therefore, they require to be driven digitally using a motor control system.
The stator is the fixed part of the motor, whereas the rotor is the rotating part. It likewise figures out the speed and different other qualities needed to run a BLDC motor efficiently.
Why do we need this sensing unit?
After one rotor movement, we require to turn a specific winding on to press the rotor once again. A little quantity of current runs through the Hall Strip at all times, so it figures out the precise moment when we need to push the rotor. Due to this, the next commutation of the rotor can be started.
How to Choose E-bike Controller?
The list below aspects need to be considered to pick the perfect E-bike controller,
1. Controller Voltage & & Power
If youre selecting a controller for a particular motor, check the controller voltage, and power. If you buy a non-programmable controller, make sure that the control voltage ought to be the very same as motor voltage and the controller power must be the very same or a little more than the motor power. If the motor voltage is 24v, then the controllers voltage need to be 24v.
If your controller is programmable, then this power can be restricted if needed. The voltage of the controller ought to match the motor as well as the battery. With this factor to consider, youll lower the heating of the controller, and its operation will be more stable, which increases the systems reliability.
2. Controller Current Rating
While choosing the controller, make sure that the controllers existing rating is lower than the batterys output current. Generally, the maximum existing for a 9-MOSFET controller is 25A, 18A for a 6-MOSFET controller, 40A for a 15-MOSFET controller, etc.
3. Stage and Battery Current
Lets consider the example of a welding device; it takes 10A from the network and offers all 100A at the output. The controller works with the very same principle. It can take 30A from the battery and offer around 80A to the motor.
The phase current is connected to the motor. The phase current can be much higher than the battery existing.
While choosing an E-bike controller for the motor, you require to examine that the phase current of the motor and the controller current need to be matched. If the controller provides more present than the current motor capacity, it will warm up a growing number of.
When the motor gets too hot, the varnish finishing on the wires starts to lose its residential or commercial properties. As a result, it creates a short circuit, and the motor begins to heat up quickly and damage the windings.
Therefore, in regular E-bike controllers, the stage current of the controller should match the motor existing. This setup will not lead to the failure of specific components.
4. Controller Driving Type – Sine wave or Square wave controller?
As compared to sine wave controllers, they produce high noise production and non-smooth or punched control. Also, square wave controllers are less motor effective when going uphill or when bring a heavy load.
Individuals prefer the square wave controllers due to the fact that they are more economical. They can function with different motors. These controllers provide greater performance throughout unexpected braking or velocity..
Both controllers vary in the phase voltage waveform. One creates a sinusoidal waveform, while the other produces a rectangle-shaped waveform.
Sine wave controller is popular due to the fact that of their lower noise production. Sine wave controllers take in much more power and will cost you more.In addition, they can operate with matched motors just.
5. Is it a Hall Sensor/Non-Hall sensing unit drive or a Dual-mode controller?
In the market, there are various types of controllers readily available with different configurations. For that reason, kindly consider all the above specifications when you are picking a controller.
The controller is supposed to be Hall-sensor or double mode if your E-bike motor includes a Hall sensing unit. The hall sensing unit in the motor senses the motor rotation, and the controller produces the voltage depending upon the sensing unit signals..
While selecting the controller, make sure that the controllers current ranking is lower than the batterys output current. Generally, the maximum existing for a 9-MOSFET controller is 25A, 18A for a 6-MOSFET controller, 40A for a 15-MOSFET controller, etc.
If youre choosing a controller for a specific motor, inspect the controller voltage, and power. If you purchase a non-programmable controller, guarantee that the control voltage must be the same as motor voltage and the controller power must be the exact same or a little more than the motor power. If the motor voltage is 24v, then the controllers voltage should be 24v.
This controller t is more steady and has lower power intake with more starting torque.
Think about the required control functions, measurements of the controller, etc. I hope this short article assists you to choose the perfect controller for your E-bike motor.